Hepatitis B Virus (HBV): A Review on its Prevalence and Infection in different areas of Iraq


  • Huda Sahib Abdul Mohammed Al-Rawazq Anatomy/ Biology Section, College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0793-1057


Hepatitis B Virus, ELISA, PCR, HBsAg, Blood samples


Hepatitis B is a severe infection of liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) lead to progressive liver diseases, such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It can cause acute and chronic infections. HBV infection is one of the serious concerns and a constant threat to public health. WHO ranks HBV among the top ten killers. It is estimated that more than 350 million hepatitis B carriers are present worldwide. This disease is generally transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids. Perinatal or vertical transmission is the major route of transmission in endemic areas. The incubation period of HBV varies from 1 to 6 months. Serological tests are conducted to detect antigens and antibodies in the serum of patients. ELISA is used to detect HBV antigen and antibody and PCR is used to detect HBV-DNA. There is no treatment available for acute infection. Chronic cases can be treated with medications. HBV infection is easily preventable with a vaccine. The present study focused on the compilation and review of (30) papers on the prevalence of HBV infection by Iraqi researchers in different areas of Iraq.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdulla, I.M. & Goreal, A.A. (2016). Detection of Hepatitis-B virus Genotypes among Chronic Carriers in Duhok - Iraq. J. Fac. Med. Bagdad, 58(2): 170–175. https://doi.org/10.32007/jfacmedbagdad.582234.

Abdulrazaq, G. & AL-Azaawie, A.F. (2017). Molecular and Immunological Study of Hepatitis B virus infection in Samara City, Iraq. Cihan University-Erbil Scientific Journal, 2: 97-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.24086/cuesj.si.2017.n2a9.

Abdul-Jalil, N.K. & Al-Asadi, J.N. (2016). Seroprevalence of viral hepatitis B and C among pre-surgical patients in Basrah, Iraq. The Medical Journal of Basrah University, 34(2): 86-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.33762/mjbu.2016.117159.

Alavian, S.M., Tabatabaei, S.V., Ghadimi, T., Beedrapour, F., Kafi-Abad, S.A., Gharehbaghian, A. & Abolghasemi, H. (2012). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Its Risk Factors in the West of Iran: A Population-based Study. Int. J. Prev. Med., 3(11): 770–775.

Al-Jadiry, M.F., Al-Khafagi, M., Al-Darraji, A.F., Al-Saeed, R.M., Al-Badri, S.F. & Al-Hadad, S.A. (2013). High incidence of hepatitis B infection after treatment for paediatric cancer at a teaching hospital in Baghdad. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 19(2): 130-134.

Al-jumaily, H.F., Turky, A.M. & Dawood, M.S. (2013). Seroconversion of anti-HBs alone among certain high risk groups in Al-Ramadi City, Western Iraq. International Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 1(2): 56–63.

Al-Marzoqi, A.H., Radi, N.K. & Shamran, A.R. (2015). Human Genetic Variation Susceptibility Associated with HBV: Analysis of Genetic Markers Susceptibility to Hepatitis B among Patients in Babylon Province. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 4(4): 102-113.

Al-Rubaye, A., Tariq, Z. & Alrubaiy, L. (2016). Prevalence of hepatitis B seromarkers and hepatitis C antibodies in blood donors in Basra, Iraq. BMJ Open Gastroenterol., 3(1): e000067. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2015-000067.

Al-Saad, T., Al-Alousi, B.M., Khalaf, N.M. & Razak, W.A. (2009). Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Medical Staff in Ramadi General Hospital. Al-Anbar Medical Journal, 7(1): 68–75.

Al-Sharifi, L.M., Murtadha, J., Shahad, A., Mohammed, Y., Sura, J., Waleed, Z., Raheeq, M., Sura, A., Ehab, H., Shahad, M. & Abbas, Q. (2019). Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in thalassemic patients and its relation with type of thalassemia, frequency of blood transfusion, and spleen status. Med. J. Babylon, 16(2): 108-111. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_6_19.

Al-Suraifi, A.S.K., Al-Rubaie, A.D.J., Al-Mayahie, S.M.G. & Al-Abedy, N.M.M. (2016). Unusual HBV Mixed Genotype Infections Among Hepatitis Type B Iraqi Patients in Wasit Province/Iraq. International Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Clinical Science, 2(1): 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.11648/j.ijbecs.20160201.11.

Al-Zubaidi, M.A., Bahreini, M., Moghadam, M.R.S. & Al-Rubaye, W.S.A. (2019). Detection and determination of hepatitis B using molecular and serological methods in patients with hepatitis B in Al-Diwaniya Iraq. AL-Qadisiyah Medical Journal, 15(1): 87–97.

Amen, R.M. (2013). Prevalence of HBV among Hemodialysis patients in Mosul city, Iraq. Tikrit Journal of Pure Science, 18(3): 10-15.

Baiani, M., Javanian, M., Sadeghi Haddad, M., Taheri, H., Soleimani Amiri, M.J. & Hassanjani Roushan, M.R. (2010). Prevalence of isolated anti-HBc in previously HBV infected individuals. Caspian J. Intern. Med., 1(3): 108-110.

Gerlich, W.H. (2013). Medical Virology of Hepatitis B: how it began and where we are now. Virol. J., 10: 239. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-10-239.

Hasan, A.SH., Fayyadh, H.M. & Al-Taie, W.S.S. (2018). Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Anti-Hepatitis B Core Antibodies among Blood Donors in Diyala, Iraq. Asian Journal of Nursing Education and Research, 8(4): 489–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2349-2996.2018.00100.3.

Hasan, A.SH. (2012). Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis B Virus Antigens and Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Blood Donors. Diyala J. Med., 3(1): 57-61.

Hassab, Z.S., Abd Al-Ruhman, A.K., Saleh, Y.A. & Abd Allah, A.I. (2016). Serological Patterns of hepatitis B Virus Among HBsAg Negative Blood Donors in Baghdad, Iraq by Using Architect System. J. Fac. Med. Bagdad, 58(3): 298–302. https://doi.org/10.32007/jfacmedbagdad.583268.

Hussein, M.H., Abid, I.N., Jabber, A.Sh. & Al-Badry, B.J. (2019). Prevalence of hepatitis B infections in local and incoming populations of the public health laboratory reviewers in Al- Nasiriyah city - Iraq. Iraq Med. J., 3(1): 27-30.

Hussein, N.R., Haj, S.M., Almizori, L.A. & Taha, A.A. (2017). The Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Viruses among Blood Donors Attending Blood Bank in Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Int. J. Infect., 4(1): e39008. https://dx.doi.org/10.17795/iji-39008.

Hussein, N.R. (2018). Risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Duhok city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Caspian J. Intern. Med., 9(1): 22–26. https://doi.org/10.22088/cjim.9.1.22.

Ismail, H. (2013). Hepatitis B Virus infection in pregnant women in Baghdad. Al-Kindy Col. Med. J., 9(1): 42-45.

Kadhem, S.B., Edi, Z.M., Jumaa, M.G. & Rhaymah, M.S. (2019). Prevalence of Viral Hepatitis Infections in Misan Province, Iraq, 2013 through 2017. J. Pharm. Sci. Res., 11(4): 1263-1268.

Khaled, M.D. (2014). Prevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection among Thalassemia patients in Ninavha Governorate/Iraq. Journal of Biotechnology Research Center, 8(2): 11–13.

Khudair, E.A., Al-Shuwaikh, A.M.A. & Farhan, N.M. (2019). Detection of TTV Antigen in Patients with Hepatitis HBV and HCV. Iraqi Journal of Medical Sciences, 17(1): 43-49. https://doi.org/10.22578/IJMS.17.1.7.

Kurdi, M., Abughararah, M., Mulike, M., Yamani, O., Bugdady, M. & Noor, M. (2014). Molecular detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among voluntary ELISA positive blood donors in Almadinah Almunawwarah. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 9(2): 166–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2014.01.002.

Kwon, S.Y. & Lee, C.H. (2011). Epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. Korean J. Hepatol., 17(2): 87-95. https://doi.org/10.3350/kjhep.2011.17.2.87.

Mahmoud, I.S. (2013). Detection of HBs-Ags in sera of Hepatitis B Virus Infected Patients. Tikrit Medical Journal, 19(2): 280-285.

Mahoney, F.J. (1999). Update on diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 12(2): 351–366.

Majeed, Y.H. (2016). Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Prevalence among Screened Populations and Certain risk Groups in AL-Anbar Governorate, West of Iraq. Al-Anbar Medical Journal, 13(1): 14–19.

Mousa, N.M. (2012). Hepatitis B in Patients with Thalassemia Major in Tikrit Teaching Hospital. Tikrit Medical Journal, 18(1): 77-82.

Muhsin, M.A. & Abdul-Husin, I.F. (2013). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Thalassemic, Haemophilic patients in Babylon Governorate-Iraq. Medical Journal of Babylon, 10(2): 445-454.

Othman, S.M., Saleh, A.M. & Shabila, N.P. (2013). Knowledge about Hepatitis B Infection among Medical Students in Erbil City, Iraq. European Scientific Journal, 3: 299-305. https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2013.v9n10p%25p.

Saadoon, I.H. (2016). The Frequency of HBsAg in Blood Donors in Tikrit City. Medical Journal of Tikrit University, 21(1): 200-204.

Sadik, A.S., Alzailayee, A.A. & Foda, M.B. (2014). Serological and molecular detection of hepatitis B viral antibodies and its surface antigen in blood samples of different age stages at Taif Governorate, KSA. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci., 3(3): 758-773.

Thabit, M.F., Ali, M.H. & AL-Bahadeli, N.M. (2017). Knowledge about hepatitis B infection among undergraduate medical and health college Students, Baghdad. Mustansiriya Medical Journal, 16(2): 63-67.

Willis, A.P. (2007). Hepatitis B Research Advances. 1st edition, Nova Science Publishers, Inc, USA. Page 36.

Zhang, X., Zhang, W. & Ye, L. (2006). Pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus infection. Future Virol., 1(5): 637–647. https://doi.org/10.2217/17460794.1.5.637.

Zhu, Y., Zhang, T., Zhao, J., Weng, Z., Yuan, Q., Li, S., Zhang, J., Xia, N. & Zhao, Q. (2014). Toward the development of monoclonal antibody-based assays to probe virion-like epitopes in hepatitis B vaccine antigen. Hum. Vaccin. Immunother., 10(4): 1013–1023. https://doi.org/10.4161/hv.27753.


Abstract views: 19 / PDF downloads: 11



How to Cite

Al-Rawazq, H. S. A. M. (2020). Hepatitis B Virus (HBV): A Review on its Prevalence and Infection in different areas of Iraq. Advances in BioScience, 11(2), 28–35. Retrieved from https://journals.sospublication.co.in/ab/article/view/277