Microbiota and Related Disease



Gut Microbiota, IBD, Gestational Age, Enterotypes, Microbiota Dysbiosis


The microbiota is a complex community of wide range of bacteria and other microorganisms that can be found in numerous parts of human body, including the gastrointestinal tract, skin, mouth, respiratory system and vaginal canal. Over 70% of the microbiota live in a mutualistic and beneficial relationship with their host. Every individual has a distinct gut microbiota composition, which play a range of roles in the food metabolic system of the host, the structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation and pathogen protection. Taxonomically there are different microorganisms categorized in the gut microbiota. Early in life, the makeup of each human intestinal microbiota is determined by the changes in infants (gestational age, delivery, dairy feeding and weaning) as well as external variables, such as the use of antibiotics. In adult life these personal and balanced cores of native microbiota are typically constant, although enterotypes, BMI levels, working-out frequency, lifestyle, cultural and nutritional habits differ from person to person. As a result, since the gut microbiota makeup of each individual is different, there is no optimal intestinal microbiota composition. However, a balanced healthy host-microorganism must be maintained in order to perform metabolic and immunological activities in an optimal manner, and avoid disease progression. There are a number of extra-intestinal disorders that lead to microbiota dysbiosis, including metabolism, neurology, and cancer. An appropriate treatment options should assist in understanding the origin and consequences of the gut microbiota balance in health and illness and also help to preserve or restore a healthy gut microbiota composition.


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Author Biographies

Darya Sardar Muhammadrasheed

Department of Medical Biology, Health Science Institute, Tokat Gaziosmanpaşa University, Tokat-Turkey.

Aso Hemn Omar

Department of Pathological Analytics, Paitaxt Technical Institute, Erbil- Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

Aras Othman Rasool

Department of Pathological Analytics, Paitaxt Technical Institute, Erbil-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.

Gulstan Mudhafar Mokhtar

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya-Kurdistan Region-Iraq.


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How to Cite

Muhammadrasheed, D. S., Omar, A. H., Rasool, A. O., & Mokhtar, G. M. (2022). Microbiota and Related Disease. Advances in BioScience, 13(2), 41–52. Retrieved from https://journals.sospublication.co.in/ab/article/view/292




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