Unripe Fruit's Extract of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) as a Potent Alpha-amylase Inhibitor


  • Mostafa Koutb Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Applied Science, Biology Department, Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
  • Fatthy Mohamed Morsy Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516, Egypt.


Quince Unripe Fruit, Alpha-amylase Inhibitor, P-vinylphenol, Cyclopropane Carboxylic Acid (CPCA)


The use of alpha-amylase inhibitors has recently gained in popularity with the success and growth of carbohydrate restricted diets. In this study, two different stages from the unripe fruits of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) have been tested for their potentiality in alpha-amylase inhibition as a key enzyme in carbohydrates assimilation. Our results revealed that addition of different concentrations from extracts (0, 2, 4, 6, 8mg) of dry mass of each stage of unripe fruits resulted in drastically decrease in the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase by the percent of (0%, 42.6%, 21%, 26.3%, and 16.9%) for the stage 1. Extracts from the stage 2 were more effective in enzymatic inhibition (0%, 26.9%, 3.8%, 0.2%, and 0.4%). The GC/MS analysis revealed that quince extract contains (sorbitol, quinic acid, p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid). To explore which components are involved in the inhibition process, two pure components of the quince extract (sorbitol and quinic acid) were used in inhibition assay. Neither sorbitol nor quinic acid shows any significant inhibition; therefore, these two components could be excluded from the inhibition process. Our current study suggested that p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid might act as a-amylase inhibitors in vitro separately or synergistically. The possible explanation for the presence of cyclopropane carboxylic acid (CPCA) in this critical phase of the unripe fruit will be discussed. This study suggests that the unripe fruits of quince can be used as a natural starch blocker containing alpha-amylase inhibitors which would be of interest for people requiring carbohydrate restricted diets.


Download data is not yet available.


Abesundara, K.J.M., Matsui, T. & Matsumoto, K. (2004). α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity of Some Sri Lanka Plant Extracts, One of Which, Cassia auriculata, Exerts a Strong Antihyperglycemic Effect in Rats Comparable to the Therapeutic Drug Acarbose. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(9): 2541–2545. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf035330s.

Youn, J.-Y., Park, H.-Y. & Cho, K.-H. (2004). Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Commelina communis L.: inhibition of α-glucosidase. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 66 Suppl 1: S149–S155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2003.08.015.

Kim, Y.M., Jeong, Y.K., Wang, M.H., Lee, W.Y. & Rhee, H.I. (2005). Inhibitory effect of pine extract on alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia. Nutrition, 21(6): 756–761. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.10.014.

Kotowaroo, M.I., Mahomoodally, M.F., Gurib-Fakim, A. & Subratty, A.H. (2006). Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro. Phytother. Res., 20(3): 228–231. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1839.

Funke, I. & Melzig, M.F. (2006). Traditionally used plants in diabetes therapy: phytotherapeutics as inhibitors of α-amylase activity. Braz. J. Pharmacogn., 16(1): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2006000100002.

a). Silva, B.M., Andrade, P.B., Valentão, P., Ferreres, F., Seabra, R. M. & Ferreira, M.A. (2004). Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) fruit (pulp, peel, and seed) and Jam: antioxidant activity. J. Agric. Food Chem., 52(15): 4705–4712. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf040057v.

b). Silva, B.M., Valentão, P., Seabra, R.M. & Andrade, P.B. (2008). Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller): an interesting dietary source of bioactive compounds. In: Papadopoulos, K.N. (Ed.), Food Chemistry Research Developments. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, pp. 243–266.

Oliveira, A.P., Pereira, J.A., Andrade, P.B., Valentão, P., Seabra, R.M. & Silva, B.M. (2007). Phenolic Profile of Cydonia oblonga Miller Leaves. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55(19): 7926–7930. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0711237.

Fattouch, S., Caboni, P., Coroneo, V., Tuberoso, C.I., Angioni, A., Dessi, S., Marzouki, N. & Cabras, P. (2007). Antimicrobial Activity of Tunisian Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) Pulp and Peel Polyphenolic Extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55(3): 963–969. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062614e.

Oliveira, A.P., Pereira, J.A., Andrade, P.B., Valentão, P., Seabra, R.M. & Silva, B.M. (2008). Organic acids composition of Cydonia oblonga Miller leaf. Food Chem., 111(2): 393–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.004.

Costa, R.M., Magalhães, A.S., Pereira, J.A., Andrade, P.B., Valentão, P., Carvalho, M. & Silva, B.M. (2009). Evaluation of free radical-scavenging and antihemolytic activities of quince (Cydonia oblonga) leaf: a comparative study with green tea (Camellia sinensis). Food Chem. Toxicol., 47(4): 860–865. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.01.019.

Yildirim, A., Oktay, M. & Bi̇laloğlu, V. (2001). The Antioxidant Activity of the Leaves of Cydonia vulgaris. Turk. J. Med. Sci., 31(1): 23–27.

Fiorentino, A., D'Abrosca, B., Pacifico, S., Mastellone, C., Piscopo, V. & Monaco, P. (2006). Spectroscopic identification and antioxidant activity of glucosylated carotenoid metabolites from Cydonia vulgaris fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(25): 9592–9597. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf062125e.

Fiorentino, A., D'Abrosca, B., Pacifico, S., Mastellone, C., Piccolella, S. & Monaco, P. (2007). Isolation, structure elucidation, and antioxidant evaluation of cydonioside A, an unusual terpenoid from the fruits of Cydonia vulgaris. Chem. Biodivers., 4(5): 973–979. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200790088.

Fiorentino, A., D'Abrosca, B., Pacifico, S., Mastellone, C., Piscopo, V., Caputo, R. & Monaco, P. (2008). Isolation and structure elucidation of antioxidant polyphenols from quince (Cydonia vulgaris) peels. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56(8): 2660–2667. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf800059r.

García-Alonso, M., de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C. & Rivas-Gonzalo, J.C. (2004). Evaluation of the antioxidant properties of fruits. Food Chem., 84(1): 13–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00160-2.

Hamauzu, Y., Yasui, H., Inno, T., Kume, C. & Omanyuda, M. (2005). Phenolic profile, antioxidant property, and anti-influenza viral activity of Chinese quince (Pseudocydonia sinensis Schneid.), quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), and apple (Malus domestica Mill.) fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53(4): 928–934. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0494635.

Hamauzu, Y., Inno, T., Kume, C., Irie, M. & Hiramatsu, K. (2006). Antioxidant and antiulcerative properties of phenolics from Chinese quince, quince, and apple fruits. J. Agric. Food Chem., 54(3): 765–772. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf052236y.

Kalkan Yildirim, H. (2006). Evaluation of colour parameters and antioxidant activities of fruit wines. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 57(1-2): 47–63. https://doi.org/10.1080/09637480600655993.

Wang, X., Jia, W., Zhao, A. & Wang, X. (2006). Anti-influenza agents from plants and traditional Chinese medicine. Phytother. Res., 20(5): 335–341. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1892.

Aslan, M., Orhan, N., Orhan, D.D. & Ergun, F. (2010). Hypoglycemic activity and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants traditionally used in Turkey for diabetes. J. Ethnopharmacol., 128(2): 384–389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.01.040.

Palmese, M.T., Uncini Manganelli, R.E. & Tomei, P.E. (2001). An ethno-pharmacobotanical survey in the Sarrabus district (south-east Sardinia). Fitoterapia, 72(6): 619–643. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0367-326x(01)00288-x.

Tahraoui, A., El-Hilaly, J., Israili, Z.H. & Lyoussi, B. (2007). Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in south-eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). J. Ethnopharmacol., 110(1): 105–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.011.

Osman, A.G., Koutb, M. & Sayed, A. (2010). Use of hematological parameters to assess the efficiency of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) leaf extract in alleviation of the effect of ultraviolet--A radiation on African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). J. Photochem. Photobiol. B., 99(1): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2010.01.002.

Bernfeld, P. (1955). Amylases α and Β. In: Colowick, S.P. and Kaplan, N.O. (eds.), Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York. p. 149–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(55)01021-5.

Purgatto, E., Lajolo, F.M., do Nascimento, J.R. & Cordenunsi, B.R. (2001). Inhibition of beta-amylase activity, starch degradation and sucrose formation by indole-3-acetic acid during banana ripening. Planta, 212(5-6): 823–828. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004250000441.

Loescher, W.H., Fellman, J.K., Fox, T.C., Davis, J.M., Redgwell, R.J. & Kennedy, R.A. (1985). Other carbohydrates as translocated carbon sources: Acyclic polyols and photosyntetic carbon metabolism. In: Heath, R.L. & Preiss, J. (eds.), Regulation of Carbon Partitioning in Photosyntetic Tissue. Waverly, Baltimore. pp 309–332.

Lesinska, E., Przybylski, R. & Eskin, N.A.M. (1988). Some Volatile and Nonvolatile Flavor Components of the Dwarf Quince (Chaenomeles japanica). J. Food Sci., 53(3): 854–856. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1988.tb08970.x.

Velíšek J. & Cejpek K. (2006): Biosynthesis of food constituents: Lipids. 1. Fatty acids and derived compounds – a review. Czech J. Food Sci., 24: 193–216.

Harley, J.B., Santangelo, G.M., Rasmussen, H. & Goldfine, H. (1978). Dependence of Escherichia coli hyperbaric oxygen toxicity on the lipid acyl chain composition. J. Bacteriol., 134(3): 808–820. https://doi.org/10.1128/JB.134.3.808-820.1978.

Duncombe, W.G. & Rising, T.J. (1972). Studies on the hypoglycaemic compound cyclopropanecarboxylic acid. Effects on gluconeogenesis in vitro. Biochem. Pharmacol., 21(8): 1089–1096. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(72)90102-5.

Andrade-Cetto, A., Becerra-Jiménez, J. & Cárdenas-Vázquez, R. (2008). Alfa-glucosidase-inhibiting activity of some Mexican plants used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. J. Ethnopharmacol., 116(1): 27–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.031.

Mai, T.T., Thu, N.N., Tien, P.G. & Van Chuyen, N. (2007). Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of Vietnamese edible plants and their relationships with polyphenol contents. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo), 53(3): 267–276. https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.53.267.


Abstract views: 23 / PDF downloads: 8



How to Cite

Koutb, M., & Morsy, F. M. (2012). Unripe Fruit’s Extract of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) as a Potent Alpha-amylase Inhibitor. Advances in BioScience, 3(1), 30–34. Retrieved from https://journals.sospublication.co.in/ab/article/view/62




Most read articles by the same author(s)