Epidemiological Study of Hepatitis B Virus from 2009 to 2019 in Koya City


  • Azhi Aram Kareem Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Health, Koya University, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4057-9021
  • Dawan Jamal Hawezy School of Medicine, Koya University & Department of Surgery, Shahid Dr. Khalid Teaching Hospital, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4945-5634
  • Rukhosh Eshaq Mikha Nursing Department, Koya Technical Institution, Erbil Polytechnical University, Koya KOY45, Kurdistan Region – F.R. Iraq. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1302-6210


Epidemiology, Hepatitis B Virus, HBV, Liver cancer, Cirrhosis, Koya city


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious and common infectious disease of the liver, affecting millions of people worldwide. Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The present study aims to assess the incidence rate of hepatitis B infection in Koya city between 2009 and 2019, among individuals undergoing surgery, marriage, blood transfusion, employed in hospitals or other health care centers, and foreigners. This descriptive-analytical study has been conducted on the individuals with hepatitis B virus visiting health centers in Koya city, demographic characteristics (age, gender and ethnicity) and epidemiologic information of the patients recorded at Koya health centers were analyzed. The total incidence rate reported was 230 cases between 2009 and 2019, in which 160 (69.6%) were males, and 70 (30.4%) were females. The highest number of cases recorded in 2014 in which the incidence rate has increased due to Syrian refugee settlements in Koya city. Surprisingly, the incidence rate show decline from 2014 to 2018. As the study results revealed, the disease incidence rate has shown a decline from 2014. This shows the improvement of education, health and hygiene as well as a good vaccination program. In our region, males are more at risk than females for getting the hepatitis B virus due to males' activity and daily jobs compared with females, which remain mostly at home.


Download data is not yet available.


Seeger, C. & Mason, W.S. (2015). Molecular biology of hepatitis B virus infection. Virology, 479-480: 672–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2015.02.031.

World Health Organization (2020). Hepatitis B: World Health Organization Fact Sheet 204. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs204/en/

Lok, A.S. & McMahon, B.J. (2009). Chronic hepatitis B: update 2009. Hepatology, 50(3): 661–662. https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.23190.

Mast, E.E., Weinbaum, C.M., Fiore, A.E., Alter, M.J., Bell, B.P., Finelli, L., Rodewald, L.E., Douglas, J.M., Jr, Janssen, R.S., Ward, J.W. & Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2006). A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Part II: immunization of adults. MMWR Recomm. Rep., 55(RR-16): 1-33.

Hill, J.B., Sheffield, J.S., Kim, M.J., Alexander, J.M., Sercely, B. & Wendel, G.D. (2002). Risk of hepatitis B transmission in breast-fed infants of chronic hepatitis B carriers. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 99(6): 1049–1052. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0029-7844(02)02000-8.

Maruyama, T., Schödel, F., Iino, S., Koike, K., Yasuda, K., Peterson, D. & Milich, D.R. (1994). Distinguishing between acute and symptomatic chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Gastroenterology, 106(4): 1006–1015. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(94)90761-7.

Wilkins, T., Malcolm, J.K., Raina, D. & Schade, R.R. (2010). Hepatitis C: diagnosis and treatment. Am. Fam. Physician, 81(11): 1351–1357.

Aspinall, E., Hawkins, G., Fraser, A., Hutchinson, S. & Goldberg David, J. (2011). Hepatitis B prevention, diagnosis, treatment and care: a review. Occup. Med., 61(8): 531–540. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqr136.

Kwon, S.Y. & Lee, C.H. (2011). Epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. Korean J. Hepatol., 17(2): 87–95. https://doi.org/10.3350/kjhep.2011.17.2.87.

Madihi, S., Syed, H., Lazar, F., Zyad, A. & Benani, A. (2020). A Systematic Review of the Current Hepatitis B Viral Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Situation in Mediterranean Countries. Biomed Res. Int., 2020: 7027169. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/7027169.

Krajden, M., McNabb, G. & Petric, M. (2005). The laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis B virus. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol., 16(2): 65–72. https://doi.org/10.1155/2005/450574.

Sharara, S.L. & Kanj, S.S. (2014). War and infectious diseases: challenges of the Syrian civil war. PLoS Pathog., 10(10): e1004438. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004438.

Baig, S. (2009). Gender disparity in infections of Hepatitis B virus. J. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak., 19(9): 598-600.

Liu, W.-C. & Liu, Q.-Y. (2014). Molecular mechanisms of gender disparity in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. World J. Gastroenterol., 20(20): 6252–6261. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v20.i20.6252.

Yang, F., Yin, Y., Wang, F., Zhang, L., Wang, Y. & Sun, S. (2010). An Altered Pattern of Liver Apolipoprotein A-I Isoforms Is Implicated in Male Chronic Hepatitis B Progression. J. Proteome Res., 9(1): 134–143. https://doi.org/10.1021/pr900593r.

Ruggieri, A., Gagliardi, M.C. & Anticoli, S. (2018). Sex-Dependent Outcome of Hepatitis B and C Viruses Infections: Synergy of Sex Hormones and Immune Responses? Front. Immunol., 9: 2302. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02302.

Mazzur, S. & Jones, N. (1976). Equal Susceptibility of Males and Females on Santa Cruz Island to the Carrier State of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. J. Infect. Dis., 133(3): 331–333. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/133.3.331.

Liu, P., Xie, S.-H., Hu, S., Cheng, X., Gao, T., Zhang, C. & Song, Z. (2017). Age-specific sex difference in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. Oncotarget, 8(40): 68131–68137. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.19245.

Kolou, M., Katawa, G., Salou, M., Gozo-Akakpo, K.S., Dossim, S., Kwarteng, A. & Prince-David, M. (2017). High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the Age Range of 20-39 Years Old Individuals in Lome. Open Virol. J., 11: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874357901710011001.

Khan, F., Shams, S., Qureshi, I.D., Israr, M., Khan, H., Sarwar, M.T. & Ilyas, M. (2011). Hepatitis B virus infection among different sex and age groups in Pakistani Punjab. Virol. J., 8(1): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-8-225.


Abstract views: 26 / PDF downloads: 11



How to Cite

Kareem, A. A., Hawezy, D. J., & Mikha, R. E. (2020). Epidemiological Study of Hepatitis B Virus from 2009 to 2019 in Koya City. Advances in BioScience, 11(4), 53–57. Retrieved from https://journals.sospublication.co.in/ab/article/view/281