Heavy metal accumulation by Mosses as affected by roadside pollutants


  • Farhad Hasan Aziz Environmental Sciences Department, College of Science, University of Salahaddin – Hawler, Iraqi Kurdistan region, Iraq.
  • Soran Faisal Khdir Environmental Sciences Department, College of Science, University of Salahaddin – Hawler, Iraqi Kurdistan region, Iraq.


Dry condition, Erbil, Iraq, Heavy metal, Mosses


Mosses sampling were collected from 10 sites within the Erbil governorate in October 2015 during dry condition. The samples were air dried and crushed to fine particulates using rotary, then after the heavy metals concentration were determined by Genius XRF spectrophotometer (Skyray Instruments, USA). Location Map of selected mosses distribution were made. The results revealed that the mean values of Pb was 52.25mg/kg, Hg was 0.01mg/kg, Mn was 162.8mg/kg, Fe was 1.655%, Cu was 8.27mg/kg, Zn was 162mg/kg, Ti was 851.1mg/kg, Co was 6.28mg/kg, Ni was 57.57mg/kg, As was 6.84mg/kg, Se was 0.19mg/kg and Cr was 9.73mg/kg. The statistical results indicated that there were significant difference (P<0.05) between sites and mosses species. The data obtained in this study was compared with that of WHO standards, the results revealed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were less than of WHO standards.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdullah, M.Z., Ismail, A. & Mahammad, N.I. (2014). Statistical Analysis of Heavy Metal Concentration in Moss and Soil as Indicator of Industrial Pollution. Int. J. Sci. Environ. Technol., 3(3): 762–775.

Aslan, A., Çiçek, A., Yazici, K., Karagöz, Y., Turan, M., Akkuş, F. & Yildirim, O.S. (2011). The assessment of lichens as bioindicator of heavy metal pollution from motor vehicles activites. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 6(7): 1698–1706. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR10.331.

Aziz, F.H. (2011). Seventeen spp. new records for the Moss flora of Iraq. Phyton, 80(1): 35–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.32604/phyton.2011.80.035.

Baranowska, I. & Srogi, K. (2000). Determination of Heavy Metals in Samples of Moss by DPV. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 9(4): 329–333

Brady, N.C. (1974). The nature and properties of soils. 8th Ed., MacMillan Publishing Co., New York.

Buringh, P. (1960). Soils and Soil Conditions in Iraq. Ministry of Agriculture, Baghdad, Iraq. 337 pp.

Bykowszczenko, N., Baranowska-Bosiacka, I., Bosiacka, B., Kaczmarek, A. & Chlubek, D. (2006). Determination of Heavy Metal Concentration in Mosses of Słowiński National Park Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Neutron Activation Analysis Methods. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 15(1): 41–46.

Ekpo, B.O., Uno, U.A., Adie, A.P. & Ibok, U.J. (2012). Comparative Study of Levels of Trace Metals in Moss Species in Some Cities of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2(3): 127-135.

Ene, A., Bosneaga, A. & Georgescu, L. (2010). Determination of heavy metals in soils using XRF technique. Rom. J. Phys., 55(7-8): 815–820.

Leblanc, F. & Rao, D.N. (1974). A review of the literature on Bryophytes with respect to air pollution. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr., 121: 237–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/00378941.1974.10839310.

Frontasyeva, M.V., Nazarov, V.M. & Steinnes, E. (1994). Moss as monitor of heavy metal deposition: Comparison of different multi-element analytical techniques. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 181(2): 363–371. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02037642.

Govindapyari, H., Leleeka, M., Nivedita, M. & Uniyal, P.L. (2010). Bryophytes: Indicators and monitoring agents of pollution. NeBIO, 1(1): 35–41.

Guest, E. & Al-Rawi, A. (1966). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 1, Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Iraq, Baghdad.

Hama, R.H., Hamad, R.T. & Aziz, F.H. (2014). Climate change in relation to rainfall and temperature in Erbil province, Kurdistan, Iraq. Tunisian Association of Digital Geographic Information, 8th international congress, Geo Tunis, 2-6 April.

Harmens, H., Norris, D.A., Cooper, D.M., Mills, G., Steinnes, E., Kubin, E., Thöni, L., Aboal, J.R., Alber, R., Carballeira, A., et al. (2011). Nitrogen concentrations in mosses indicate the spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in Europe. Environ. Pollut., 159(10): 2852–2860. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.04.041.

Harmens, H., Norris, D.A., Steinnes, E., Kubin, E., Piispanen, J., Alber, R., Aleksiayenak, Y., Blum, O., Coşkun, M., Dam, M., De Temmerman, L. et al. (2010). Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: Spatial patterns and temporal trends in Europe. Environ. Pollut., 158(10): 3144–3156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.06.039.

Harmens, H., Norris, D. & Mills, G. (2013). Heavy metals and nitrogen in mosses: spatial patterns in 2010/2011 and long-term temporal trends in Europe. ICP Vegetation Programme Coordination Centre, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bangor, UK, 63 pp.

Harmens, H., Foan, L., Simon, V. & Mills, G. (2011). Mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric POPs pollution: A review. Report for Defra contract AQ08610. NERC/Centre for Ecology & Hydrology. 26 pp. (CEH Project Number: C04062)

Haqus, M.D.A. & Hameed, H.A. (1986). Lead content of green forage growing adjacent to expressways and roads connecting Erbil City (Northern Iraq). J. Biol. Sci. Res., 17: 151–164.

Kaminski, M.D. & Landsberger, S. (2000). Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL, Part I: Total concentration of heavy metals in soils. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc., 50(9): 1667–1679. https://doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2000.10464195.

Kasai, F. & Ichimura, T. (1986). Morphological variabilities of three closely related mating groups of Closterium ehrenbergii Meneghini (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol., 22(2): 158–168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.1986.tb04159.x.

LeBlanc, F., Robitaille, G. & Rao, D.N. (1974). Biological response of lichens and bryophytes to environmental pollution in the Murdochville copper mine area, Quebec. J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 38: 405-433.

Muhammad, S.F. (2003). Ecological studies on some air pollutions impact human health, Nerium oleander L. and Phragmites australis L. plants within Hawler City. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Salahaddin-Hawler, Iraq.

Ojo, F.P., Oluseye, O.C. & Abiola, O.G. (2012). Mosses as Biomonitors of Heavy Metal Deposition in the Atmosphere. Int. J. Environ. Sci., 1(2): 56-62.

Røyset, O., Vadset, M., Johansen, O. & Steinnes, E. (1995). Multi-element ICPMS analysis of moss used as biomonotor of air pollutants. Rep. TR 1/95, Norwegian institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway.

Rühling, Å. (ed.) (1994). Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Europe — estimation based on moss analysis. NORD 1994:9, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.

Rühling, Å. & Tyler, G. (1968). An ecological approach to the lead problem. Bot. Not., 121: 321–342.

Santelmann, M.V. & Gorham, E. (1988). The influence of airborne road dust on the chemistry of Sphagnum mosses. J. Ecol., 76(4): 1219–1231. https://doi.org/10.2307/2260644.

Steinnes, E., Allen, R.O., Petersen, H.M., Rambæk, J.P. & Varskog, P. (1997). Evidence of large scale heavy-metal contamination of natural surface soils in Norway from long-range atmospheric transport. Sci. Total Environ., 205(2-3): 255–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00209-X.

Steinnes, E. (1980). Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Norway studied by the analysis of moss samples using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. J. Radioanal. Chem., 58(1): 387–391. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02533811.

WFP (2002). Statistical Report on population of Iraq Kurdistan Region. World Food Program.


Abstract views: 23 / PDF downloads: 7



How to Cite

Aziz, F. H., & Khdir, S. F. (2016). Heavy metal accumulation by Mosses as affected by roadside pollutants. Advances in BioScience, 7(3), 86–93. Retrieved from https://journals.sospublication.co.in/ab/article/view/207