Effect of Growth and Pigmentation on Acceptability of Different Feeds by Colisa lalia (Hamilton, 1822)


  • Manab Kumar Saha Aquaculture Research Unit, Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721 102, West Bengal, India.
  • Bidhan C. Patra Aquaculture Research Unit, Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721 102, West Bengal, India.


Indigenous Ornamental fish, carotenoids, fish feed, Colisa lalia, Specific growth rate


Bright colouration always attracts the people; it is also true in case of ornamental fish. The colour creates a natural eye catching environment to the visitors, Buyers and hobbyist. Now, it is well established that the colour of ornamental fish can modify by the feed. In case of fish, without dietary addition of carotenoids leads to dull colour resonance. Which leads to poor market demand and it's directly related to the profitability i.e. determine their market demand and price. In the present study, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of four different types of feed (Living Tubifex, Dried Tubifex, Dried Daphnia and commercial food) for Colisa lalia (Hamilton, 1822). Carotenoid content and specific growth rate (SGR) of the fish were analyzed after the treatment and Colisa lalia consume the live organisms more efficiently than the artificial feed. The Living Tubifex gave the best result for Colisa lalia to increasing the colouration and growth.


Download data is not yet available.


Boonyaratpalin, M. & Lovell, R.T. (1977). Diet preparation for aquarium fishes. Aquaculture, 12(1): 53–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(77)90046-1.

Diler, I., Hossu, B., Dilek, K., Emre, Y. & Sevgili, H. (2005). Effects of natural and synthetic pigments in diets on flesh coloration and growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.). The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 57(3): 175-184. https://doi.org/10.46989/001c.20411.

Earle, K.E. (1995). The nutritional requirements of ornamental fish. Vet. Q., 17(Suppl 1): S53-S55. https://doi.org/10.1080/01652176.1995.9694599.

Fermin, A.C. & Bolivar, M.E.C. (1991). Larval rearing of the Philippine freshwater catfish, Clarias macrocephalus (Gunther), fed live zooplankton and artificial diet: a preliminary study. The Israeli Journal of Aquaculture-Bamidgeh, 43(3): 87-94.

Fey, M. & Meyers, S.P. (1980). Evaluation of carotenoid-fortified flake diets with pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri. Journal of Aquariculture, 1: 15-19.

Fujii, R. (2000). The regulation of motile activity in fish chromatophores. Pigment Cell Res., 13(5): 300–319. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0749.2000.130502.x.

Gouveia, L., Rema, P., Pereira, O. & Empis, J. (2003). Colouring ornamental fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus) with microalgal biomass. Aquacult. Nutr., 9(2): 123–129. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2095.2003.00233.x.

Grether, G.F., Hudon, J. & Millie, D.F. (1999). Carotenoid limitation of sexual coloration along an environmental gradient in guppies. Proc. Biol. Sci., 266(1426): 1317. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1999.0781.

Hatlen, B., Aas, G.H., Jørgensen, E.H., Storebakken, T. & Goswami, U.C. (1995). Pigmentation of 1, 2 and 3 year old Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed two different dietary astaxanthin concentrations. Aquaculture, 138(1): 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(95)01072-6.

Hatlen, B., Arnesen, A.M., Jobling, M., Siikavuopio, S. & Bjerkeng, B. (1997). Carotenoid pigmentation in relation to feed intake, growth and social interactions in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), from two anadromous strains. Aquacult. Nutr., 3(3): 189–199. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2095.1997.00087.x.

Ingle de la Mora, G., Arredondo-Figueroa, J.L., Ponce-Palafox, J.T., Barriga-Soca, I.A. & Vernon-Carter, J.E. (2006). Comparison of red chilli (Capsicum annuum) oleoresin and astaxanthin on rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) fillet pigmentation. Aquaculture, 258: 487–495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.04.005.

Katsuyama, M. & Matsuno, T. (1988). Carotenoid and vitamin A, and metabolism of carotenoids, β-carotene, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, lutein and tunaxanthin in tilapia tilapia nilotica. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 90(1): 131–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(88)90049-1.

Katsuyama, M., Komori, T. & Matsuno, T. (1987). Metabolism of three stereoisomers of astaxanthin in the fish, rainbow trout and tilapia. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 86(1): 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(87)90165-9.

Lim, L.C., Soh, A., Dhert, P. & Sorgeloos, P. (2001). Production and application of on‐grown Artemia in freshwater ornamental fish farm. Aquac. Econ. Manag., 5(3-4): 211–228. https://doi.org/10.1080/13657300109380288.

Lovell, R.T. (1992). Dietary enhancement of color in ornamental fish. Aquaculture Magazine, 18(5): 77-79.

Lovell, R.T. (2000). Nutrition of ornamental fish. In: Bonagura, J. (Ed.), Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIII—Small Animal Practice. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, USA, 1191–1196.

Mandal, B., Mukherjee, A. & Banerjee, S. (2010). Growth and pigmentation development efficiencies in fantail guppy, Poecilia reticulata fed with commercially available feeds. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 1(6): 1264-1267. http://dx.doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.6.1264.1267.

Matsuno, T., Katsuyama, M., Maoka, T., Hirono, T. & Komori, T. (1985). Reductive metabolic pathways of carotenoids in fish (3S,3′S)-astaxanthin to tunaxanthin a, b and c. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 80(4): 779–789. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(85)90461-4.

Meyers, S.P. (1994). Developments in world aquaculture, feed formulations and role of carotenoids. Pure Appl. Chem., 66(5): 1069–1076. https://doi.org/10.1351/pac199466051069.

Miki, W., Yamaguchi, K., Konosu, S., Takane, T., Satake, M., Fujita, T., Kuwabara, H., Shimeno, S. & Takeda, M. (1985). Origin of tunaxanthin in the integument of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 80(2): 195–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(85)90195-6.

Ng, W.J., Kho, K., Ong, S.L., Sim, T.S., Ho, J.M. & Tay, S.H. (1993). Preliminary estimation of tropical ornamental fish metabolite production rates. Aquaculture, 110(3): 263–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(93)90374-8.

No, H.K. & Storebakken, T. (1991). Color Stability of Rainbow Trout Fillets during Frozen Storage. J. Food Sci., 56(4): 969–972. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1991.tb14618.x

No, H.K. & Storebakken, T. (1992). Pigmentation of rainbow trout with astaxanthin and canthaxanthin in freshwater and saltwater. Aquaculture, 101(1): 123–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(92)90237-F.

Odiorne, J.M. (1957). Color changes (Chapter VIII). In: M.E. Brown (Ed.), The Physiology of Fishes, Volume II: Behavior, Academic Press, New York, pp. 526.

Pannevis, M.C. & Earle, K.E. (1995). Nutrition of ornamental fish. Wien.Tierärztl. Mnschr., 82: 96–99 (German with English abstract).

Paripatananont, T., Tangtrongpairoj, J., Sailasuta, A. & Chansue, N. (1999). Effect of Astaxanthin on the Pigmentation of Goldfish Carassius auratus. J. World Aquacult. Soc., 30(4): 454–460. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-7345.1999.tb00993.x.

Rezende, F.P., Vidal Júnior, M.V., Andrade, D.R., Mendonça, P.P. & Santos, M.V.B. (2012). Characterization of a new methodology based on the intensity of skin staining of ornamental fish with applications in nutrition. J. Agric. Sci. Technol., 2: 606-613.

Saha, M.K. & Patra, B.C. (2013). Resource potentiality of indigenous ornamental fishes in west Bengal. Int. J. Curr. Res., 5(5): 1232-1238.

Shim, K.F. (1986). By-product utilization in live food culture for tropical aquarium fish. In: De Silva, S.S. (Ed.), Finfish nutrition research in Asia, Proceedings of the Second Asian Fish Nutrition Network Meeting. Heinemann Asia, Singapore. pp. 42–47.

Smith, B.E., Hardy, R.W. & Torrissen, O.J. (1992). Synthetic astaxanthin deposition in pan-size coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Aquaculture, 104(1): 105–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(92)90141-7.

Socolof, R. (1980). Tropicals. In: Brown, E.E. & Gratzek, J.B. (eds), Fish Farming Handbook: Food, Bait, Tropicals and Goldfish. AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut, pp 163–206.

Sommer, T.R., D'Souza, F.M.L. & Morrissy, N.M. (1992). Pigmentation of adult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, using the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Aquaculture, 106(1): 63–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(92)90250-O.

Storebakken, T. & No, H.K. (1992). Pigmentation of rainbow trout. Aquaculture, 100(1): 209–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(92)90372-R.

Wang, Y.J., Chien, Y.H. & Pan, C.H. (2006). Effects of dietary supplementation of carotenoids on survival, growth, pigmentation, and antioxidant capacity of characins, Hyphessobrycon callistus. Aquaculture, 261(2): 641–648. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.08.040.

Yanar, Y., Büyükçapar, H., Yanar, M. & Göcer, M. (2007). Effect of carotenoids from red pepper and marigold flower on pigmentation, sensory properties and fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Food Chem., 100(1): 326–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.056.


Abstract views: 38 / PDF downloads: 12



How to Cite

Saha, M. K., & Patra, B. C. (2013). Effect of Growth and Pigmentation on Acceptability of Different Feeds by Colisa lalia (Hamilton, 1822). Advances in BioScience, 4(3), 96–99. Retrieved from https://journals.sospublication.co.in/ab/article/view/133