Water Quality Index for Assessment of Water Quality of Duhok Lake, Kurdistan Region of Iraq


  • Janan Jabbar Toma Department of Environmental Sciences, College of Sciences, University of Salahaddin, Hawler, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, Iraq


Water Quality Index, Duhok Lake


Water quality of Duhok Lake was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses the overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water quality data into information that is understandable and usable by the public. Ten most important parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and sulfate (SO4) were taken for the calculation of WQI. The result indicated that water quality of Duhok Lake poor in the years 1999, 2000 and is poor in 2009 too. The impact of various anthropogenic activities was evident on some parameters such as the EC, alkalinity and hardness. It is suggested that monitoring of the lake is necessary for proper management. Application of the WQI is also suggested as a very helpful tool that enables the public and decision-makers to evaluate water quality of lakes in Iraq.


Download data is not yet available.


Das, J. & Acharya, B.C. (2003). Hydrology and Assessment of Lotic Water Quality in Cuttack City, India. Water Air Soil Pollut., 150(1): 163–175. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026193514875.

Ramakrishnaiah, C.R., Sadashivaiah, C. & Ranganna, G. (2009). Assessment of Water Quality Index for the Groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State, India. E-J. Chem., 6(2): 523–530. https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/757424.

Okeke, C.O. & Igboanua, A.H. (2003). Characteristics and Quality Assessment of Surface Water and Groundwater Recourses of Akwa Town, Southeast, Nigeria. J. Niger. Assoc. Hydrol. Geol., 14: 71-77.

Rahi, K.A. & Halihan, T. (2010). Changes in the salinity of the Euphrates River system in Iraq. Reg. Environ. Change, 10(1): 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-009-0083-y.

Jones, C., Sultan, M., Yan, E., Milewski, A., Hussein, M., Al-Dousari, A., Al-Kaisy, S. & Becker, R. (2008). Hydrologic impacts of engineering projects on the Tigris–Euphrates system and its marshlands. J. Hydrol., 353(1): 59–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.01.029.

Sargaonkar, A. & Deshpande, V. (2003). Development of an Overall Index of Pollution for Surface Water Based on a General Classification Scheme in Indian Context. Environ. Monit. Assess., 89(1): 43–67. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025886025137.

Atulegwu, P.U. & Njoku, J.D. (2004). The impact of biocides on the water quality. Int. Res. J. Eng. Sci. Technol., 1(2): 47-52.

Alam, M. & Pathak, J.K. (2010). Rapid Assessment of Water Quality Index of Ramganga River, Western Uttar Pradesh (India) Using a Computer Programme. Nat. Sci., 8(11): 1-8.

Schultz, M.T. (2001). A critique of EPA’s index of watershed indicators. J. Environ. Manage., 62(4): 429–442. https://doi.org/10.1006/jema.2001.0451.

Al-Ganabi, H.A. (1985). Duhok city: A study in urban geography. University of Mosul, Mosul. 120 pp.

Al-Shalash, A.H. (1966). The climate of Iraq. The cooperative printing presses workers society. Amman, Jordan. 85 pp.

Guest, E. (Ed.) (1966). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 1, Published by Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Iraq, Baghdad. 213 pp.

Raoof, I.Y. (2002). A phycolimnological study on Duhok impoundment and its main Watershade. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Dohuk, Dohuk.

APHA (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater analysis. 20th edition. American Public Health Association, 20th edition, Washington. D.C.

WHO (2004). Guidelines for drinking water quality. 3rd edition: Volume 1 - Recommendations, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Jain, P.K. (1998). Hydrogeology and quality of ground water around Hirapur, District Sagar (MP). Poll. Res., 17(1): 91–94.

Rzóska, J. (1980). Euphrates and Tigris, Mesopotamian Ecology and Destiny. Monographiae Biologicae, Volume 38, Dr. W. Junk bv Publishers, The Hague. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-9171-2.

Mohamed, H.A. (2005). Physico-chemical characteristics of Abu Za'baal ponds, Egypt. Egypt. J. Aquat. Res., 31(2): 1-15.

Tepe, Y., Türkmen, A., Mutlu, E. & Ateş, A. (2005). Some physicochemical characteristics of Yarseli Lake, Hatay, Turkey. Turk. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 5: 35-42.

Wilcock, R.J., McBride, G.B., Nagels, J.W. & Northcott, G.L. (1995). Water quality in a polluted lowland stream with chronically depressed dissolved oxygen: Causes and effects. N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res., 29(2): 277–288. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288330.1995.9516661.

Wetzel, R.G. (1983). Limnology. 2nd Edition, Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. 767 pp.


Abstract views: 24 / PDF downloads: 10



How to Cite

Toma, J. J. (2012). Water Quality Index for Assessment of Water Quality of Duhok Lake, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Advances in BioScience, 3(3), 119–124. Retrieved from https://journals.sospublication.co.in/ab/article/view/102