Quinalphos Induced Antioxidant Status and Histopathological Changes in the Gill of the Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis mossambicus


  • K. C. Chitra Department of Zoology, University of Calicut, Thenhipalam, Kerala-673 635, India.
  • E. Pushpalatha Department of Zoology, University of Calicut, Thenhipalam, Kerala-673 635, India.
  • V. M. Kannan Department of Zoology, University of Calicut, Thenhipalam, Kerala-673 635, India.


Quinalphos, Gill, Antioxidant Enzymes, Protein Carbonyl, ROS, Oreochromis


To extend the knowledge about quinalphos induced antioxidant status and its related changes on the histopathology of gills, the freshwater fish Oreochromis mossambicus was chosen as a model system. Quinalphos treatment (0.5μl/ L for 30 and 60 days) decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes with concomitant increase in the production of malondialdehyde. Increased reactive oxygen species generation coincides with the increase in the protein carbonyl in the gills of the treated fishes. Histological observation in the gill of quinalphos treated animal for 60 days showed several alterations as hypertrophy of gill arches, lifting of lamellar epithelium, degeneration of gill filament and lamellar epithelium and vasodilation in the lamellar axis when compared to the control group. These observations suggest that chronic exposure to pesticide affect the respiratory oxidative potential of the freshwater fish and this could be possibly due to quinalphos induced oxidative stress in the gill.


Download data is not yet available.


Benli, A.C.K. & Köksal, G. (2005). The acute toxicity of ammonia on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) larvae and fingerlings. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 29: 339–344.

Claiborne, A. (1985). Catalase activity. In: Greenwald, R.A. (Ed.), CRC Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp. 283-284.

Dalle-Donne, I., Rossi, R., Giustarini, D., Milzani, A. & Colombo, R. (2003). Protein carbonyl groups as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Clin. Chim. Acta, 329(1-2): 23–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0009-8981(03)00003-2.

David, M., Mushigeri, S.B. & Prashanth, M.S. (2002). Toxicity of fenvalerate to the freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Geobios, 29: 25-28.

Figueiredo-Fernandes, A., Ferreira-Cardoso, J.V., Garcia-Santos, S., Monteiro, S.M., Carrola, J., Matos, P. & Fontaínhas-Fernandes, A. (2007). Histopathological changes in liver and gill epithelium of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, exposed to waterborne copper. Pesq. Vet. Bras., 27(3): 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2007000300004.

Finney, D.J. (1971). Probit Analysis. 3rd Edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 333.

Laurent, P. & Perry, S.F. (1991). Environmental Effects on Fish Gill Morphology. Physiol. Zool., 64(1): 4-25. https://doi.org/10.1086/physzool.64.1.30158511.

Levine, R.L., Garland, D., Oliver, C.N., Amici, A., Climent, I., Lenz, A.G., Ahn, B.W., Shaltiel, S. & Stadtman, E.R. (1990). Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Methods Enzymol., 186: 464–478. https://doi.org/10.1016/0076-6879(90)86141-h.

Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. & Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193(1): 265–275.

Magare, S.R. & Patil, H.T. (2000). Effect of pesticides on oxygen consumption, red blood cell count and metabolites of a fish, Puntius ticto. Environ. Ecol., 18: 891–894.

Mallatt, J. (1985). Fish Gill Structural Changes Induced by Toxicants and Other Irritants: A Statistical Review. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 42: 630-648. https://doi.org/10.1139/f85-083.

Marklund, S. & Marklund, G. (1974). Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur. J. Biochem., 47(3): 469–474. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1974.tb03714.x.

Marks, D.B., Marks, A.D. & Smith, C.M. (1996). Oxygen metabolism and toxicity. In: Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, USA, pp. 327–340.

Mohandas, J., Marshall, J.J., Duggin, G.G., Horvath, J.S. & Tiller, D.J. (1984). Low activities of glutathione-related enzymes as factors in the genesis of urinary bladder cancer. Cancer Res., 44(11): 5086–5091.

Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N. & Yagi, K. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem., 95(2): 351–358. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(79)90738-3.

Pane, E.F., Haque, A. & Wood, C.M. (2004). Mechanistic analysis of acute, Ni-induced respiratory toxicity in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): an exclusively branchial phenomenon. Aquat. Toxicol., 69(1): 11–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2004.04.009.

Perry, S.F. & Laurent, P. (1993) Environmental effects on fish gill structure and function. In: Rankin, J.C. & Jensen, F.B. (eds), Fish Ecophysiology. Chapman & Hall Fish and Fisheries Series, vol. 9. Springer, Dordrecht. pp 231-264. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2304-4_9.

Prasad, M.S. (1988). Sensitivity of branchial mucous to crude oil toxicity in a freshwater fish, Colisa fasciatus. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 41(5): 754–758. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02021029.

Shacter, E., Williams, J.A., Lim, M. & Levine, R.L. (1994). Differential susceptibility of plasma proteins to oxidative modification: examination by western blot immunoassay. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 17(5): 429–437. https://doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(94)90169-4.

Sies, H. (1991). Oxidative stress: from basic research to clinical application. Am. J. Med., 91(3C): 31S–38S. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343(91)90281-2.


Abstract views: 36 / PDF downloads: 8



How to Cite

Chitra, K. C., Pushpalatha, E., & Kannan, V. M. (2012). Quinalphos Induced Antioxidant Status and Histopathological Changes in the Gill of the Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Advances in BioScience, 3(2), 85–90. Retrieved from https://journals.sospublication.co.in/ab/article/view/73